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Identify a national policy that has influenced how your landscape has been or is being used.

You need to answer all 16 questions, with 5 pages. (not including the questions itself) The three references need to be print resources.

Landscape site: Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

In this module you will explore how your landscape site is used from an economic and political perspective. You will consider the economic uses of the site and how it has contributed to the regional economy. Additionally, you will investigate what policies (which may be local, state, national, or international) have influenced your landscape’s use and economic viability.

Title: Intro to Landscape

Project Site Name: Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona

Geographic Region: South

1. Settlements/communities are often located at a particular site because of the site’s industrial and/or resource potential. For example, many towns in the Appalachians were established where coal deposits existed and thus, the coal industry thrived. Were there any preexisting economic resources or advantages about your area that caused people to settle there?:

Most often there is a tie between the industry present in a landscape and the availability of local natural resources. In the following questions, you will explore the relationship between the geophysical/ natural environment and the resulting industry in the area. This may include a discussion on how the industry uses the natural resources of your site, or a discussion on the siting (locating) of the industry due to the presence of natural features, e.g. the siting of a plant on a river for transportation.

2. In the past, what were the major economic activities of your site? INCLUDE a discussion of what resources were needed for these industries and also describe what physical characteristics of your site made it an appropriate place for these activities.

3. Currently, what are the major economic activities of your site? INCLUDE a discussion of what resources are needed for these industries and also describe what physical characteristics of your site make it an appropriate place for these activities. For this question, you should consider infrastructure (roads, sewers, utilities) as a physical characteristic of the site.

4. How does your site’s economic activity influence the development near your site (e.g. establishment of towns and advancement of the community)? For this question, you should examine how site activities have influences beyond the site boundary.

5. Describe your landscape site’s contribution to the regional economy; does it provide a unique economic contribution or the same as the surrounding area?

6. Identify any trends in economic activity for your area. For example, has there been a shift from dependence primarily on natural resource industries or an emergence of more service industry in recent years? Has there been a balance between different types of economic activity in the area over time?

While the above questions focused on natural resource opportunities, that is opportunities presented given the natural resources of the site, there may also be natural resource constraints, conditions which limit site development or use.

7. What physical characteristics of the site constrained or limited your landscape site’s usage?

The following question requires you to consider the economic value of your site, i.e. determine what the land is worth. You may include a discussion of what criteria is used in determining the land value, or what is not considered in determining the value of land. Often there are externalities that are not considered when determining land values, examples include positive externalities such as habitats and views, and negative externalities such as offsite pollution.

8. What is the land value of your site, or what are the land values within your site? Compare the land value(s) of your site with those found in the region, state, nationally, or globally.

9. Identify at least one positive externality, and describe its significance.

10. Identify at least one negative externality, and describe its significance.

11. Have the opportunity or constraints of your site changed over time? For example, while central Michigan had an abundance of white pines, thus an opportunity for timber industry, eventually, nearly all pines were harvested and the resultant landscape had limited timber value and the moved toward agricultural value.

The following questions are focused on the political context of your site.

12. Describe the political history of your site:

13. Identify a local policy that has influenced how your landscape has been or is being used. Local policies include city or township regulations/ordinances, local taxation policies and local building disincentives/incentives:

14. Identify a state policy that has influenced how your landscape has been or is being used. State policies include land subdivision regulations, land preservation programs, environmental policies:

15. Identify a national policy that has influenced how your landscape has been or is being used. National policies include environmental policies such as Clean Water Act an NEPA, national transportation policies, and federal housing programs:

16. Describe a political process that influences how your landscape is used or managed?:

REFERENCES FOR ECONOMIC/POLITICAL MODULE:

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